The Old City mosques
The mosque is a Muslim place of worship. The word evolved from the Arabic term mesjid means "place of prostration". According to legends, the first mosque built in Medina dates back to the time when the Prophet Muhammad lived. The Masjid-al-Haram ("House of God"), built in Mecca, is considered the sacred place in the Muslim world. According to the chronographer Tabari, Islam began to spread on the territory of Azerbaijan in the 22nd year of the Hijra - in 642/643 AD during the reign of the second caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab. With the spread of Islam in Azerbaijan after the 8th-9th centuries, fire-worship gradually lost its significance. Mosques played an important role in the city's life as a social, political and cultural center. The oldest mosque on the territory of ancient Baku is the remains of a mosque to be dated back to the 9th century and located near the Maiden's Tower. Mosques were not restricted to being a place of worship, a location for performing rituals, or a social and political dimension of the Muslim community. Different ceremonies were held in the neighboring mosques during Novruz and Ramadan holidays, and the month of Muharram. The mosque was the only place where any issue of the rich and poor could be resolved. The murshids, sheikhs, and scholars who analyzed and interpreted the suras and verses of the Qur'an lived here. Today, libraries and archives around the world, as well as private collections, contain the rare books of Qur'an and the manuscripts of its interpretation. Akhund Mir Mohammad Karim Agha Mirjafarzadeh, who lived in Icherisheher at that time and received higher religious education in Iraq, translated the Quran into Azerbaijani for the first time, as well as wrote three-volume interpretation of it for the first time. In 1904, Taghiyev owned a newspaper “Kaspi” and he was the first to publish Koran in Azerbaijani at its publishing house.
Shah mosque (1441-1442)
Palace mosque is the second monument located at the down courtyard. The palace mosque is covered with two sharp-pointed cupolas and emphasized by well proportioned vertical minaret raised in the noth-eastern part of the building. The minaret is 22m high. At the top of the minaret there is a balcony-sherefe, which is intended for muezzin. The small balcony of the minaret is supported by stalactites, under which there is an inscription written in Arabic: “This minaret was built by order of Sultan Khalilullah I, may Allah exalt the days of his government”. 845 hijri (or 1441-42 years). There are three entrances into the mosque. The main northern entrance has a portal. On both sides of the portal there are niches for shoes. According to the Shariat law, one can’t enter the mosque without doing ablution and taking the shoes off. In order to do ablution there is a square with a small pool and water well at the lower yard. The northern entrance leads to the praying hall for men. From the east, from the middle yard there is the second entrance with the simple portal. It was intended for the Shirvanshah. The western entrance, which leads to the women’s praying hall is the simlest one. In the mosque there are two praying halls. The large praying hall was intended for men, but small for women. There is a simply decorated “mehrab” (altar) on the southern wall of the praying hall for men. The mehrab is decorated with ribbed semi cupola and delicate stalactites. An ordinary nich plays the role of mehrab in the women’s praying hall. In the mosque acoustics problem was solved in very interesting way. The big clay jugs are built into the upper corners of the men’s praying hall, with their small necks turned to the hall. These jugs serve as loudspeakers, they create acoustic resonance. Due to these jugs, when Imam gave a sermon in the main hall, women could hear his speech in their own praying hall. The women’s praying hall has two passages, which are intended for communication with the main hall of the mosque. On the walls of the mosque there are niches of different forms and functions. They were used for prayer-mats, beads, Koran books and lamps to be placed there.
The holes built for lamps are interesting for their structure. While building the holes, empty pores were kept inside the walls so that the smell and smoke of the lamps could be released into the air. In the three corners of the prayer hall, wall-thick steps lead to small rooms on the top floor.
The sherefe part of the minaret intended for the muezzin was once a beautifully crafted. Unfortunately, you can't see it now. Because both the turquoise domes of the palace were destroyed in the 18th century by shells fired from the ships of the Russian navy. Later, in the 19th century, when the palace was used by the Russians as a military office, the stone was replaced by a metal structure. In fact, metal and wood were not used in Shirvan-Absheron architecture. The entrance to the mosque is from 3 sides. The main entrance from the north is selected by the portal. The entrance from the east was probably for the Shah and his family, from the north for men, and from the west only for the Zanans. Interestingly, the orientation was the same in the first Muslim mosques. According to the 15th century author Samhudi, the Medina Mosque first had three gates on the north, west and east sides. The West Gate is called the Gate of Compassion. It was also called the "Market Gate". Because the market met at the mosque from this side. It is probable that the congregation entered the mosque through this door; and the Prophet Muhammad passed through the eastern gate.
In 2006, the monument was restored by the World Bank.
Remains of Key Gubad Mosque (XIV century)
In fact, this monument is a conserved fragment of a mosque-madrasa destroyed by an artillery shell fired by Armenians on March 1918 – on the day of genocide of Azerbaijanis. It has been certained that the mosque dates back to the earlier period, not later than the 14th century. The foundation of an older building was used during the construction of the mosque. The mosque was possibly built by the order of Shirvanshah I Keyqubad, who lived in the 14th century. The Key-Gubad Mosque consisted of a rectangular prayer hall and a small corridor in front of it. According to the architect of 19th century AM Pavlinov: “the mosque is quite large; its dome is located on four pillars, the main arch and arches of the dome are accessible. The seat of the dome has several protrusions and is illuminated by four windows. There is no inscription of the mosque; the facade side is smooth, covered with carved stone. The inner part of the mosque is dark as its windows are small. The inscriptions of the monument had already been demolished. The columns that forms a dome-shaped square looked like a palace dome. There was an altar on the southern wall of the mosque, near the entrance of Seyid Yahya Bakuvi tomb.
In two different years 2005 and 2013, the conservation works on the mosque were carried out on a local budget.
Unfortunately, we have only the late 19th and early 20th centuries photographs and graphics of the mosque. Sketches of the mosque prepared in the years 1918-20 by a local architect Ismayil-bey Nabi oglu are kept in the Institute of Manuscripts of Azerbaijan.
Mosques usually served as either a school or a madrasa. Both are Arabic words. Schools provided primary education. Madrasas were religious institutions for higher education. Schools were the primary stage of education for entering the madrasa. Almost all of the larger villages had primary schools. Mullahs of villages taught here. When it was cold in the winter, the students would gather at the mullah's house. In cities, the number of schools was higher. At school, students would cover their feet with mat or rug. In the summer, the classes were taught in the open air, in the shade of a tree. Each student was taught separately. At the age of 8-9, the child's first lesson with a mullah was to learn the Arabic letters. Since there were no books for studying how to write correctly, the students wrote poems by national poets. After the Quran lesson, the student was given a work by one of the national poets to read. So the books were changed. It is interesting that every Thursday there was held a competition among students to study the poems of national poets. Competing in groups of two, the children had to recite a poem beginning with the last letter of the poem. The competition continued until the other side lost the competetion. As a result, the students got to know the national poets well. At the age of 8-9, some who learned to read and write stopped their education and helped their fathers in business. Others entered the madrasa and became students. The madrasas were rectangular in shape. Inside the walled madrasa, cells were set aside for students. One of these cells was so large that it was called a classroom. Here the students listened to the lecture of the mujtahid. A mujtahid was a believer who interpreted and interpreted religious laws and doctrines. Almost all madrassas had stone pools in their courtyards. At night, the big doors of madrassas were closed. The light fell on the room through a window and a barred door cornice. In winter, the net was covered with a thin sheet of linen oil. Some madrassas also had glass. Steam was built in the cells. Carpets and rugs were laid on the ground or on the stone floor. The students first left the steam, and then put the ashes in a large clay pot with ashes inside. Sometimes they dug a ravine in the ground from the fire and gathered the stumps there. Then they would place a table or stool on a plate or fire, cover it with a cotton blanket, and make a chair. Students warmed their feet and hands on the bench, and placed pens, textbooks, and candles on the table and on the chair. In the Eastern world, it was considered a reward to open a madrasah, to build a mosque and a bridge, so they were carried out by individuals. The state did not provide them with financial assistance or control over education. At 9 o'clock in the morning, senior students - teachers, in other words, teachers of younger students - gathered in the classroom. When a high-ranking clergyman entered, everyone stood up and greeted him. That person would go to the pulpit - the chair and start his lecture. Although the mujtahid was highly respected, the student had the right to have a scientific discussion during the lecture. The audience joined the winner. Sometimes the whole lesson was spent with such scientific debates. Although history was not taught as a compulsory subject in madrassas, students read it themselves; Nasih-Tavarikh, Zafarname, works of Ali-Yazdi, Fazlullah, Tarihi-Wassaf, 7-volume works of the famous historian Mirkhon, etc.
Tomb of Seyid Yahya Bakuvi (15th century)
The tomb is the tomb of Seyid Yahya Bakuvi, an encyclopedic Sufi scholar who had thousands of followers in the Middle East and whose scientific works in Arabic now adorn libraries and museums around the world. Although it is popularly called the "Dervish" tomb, it is believed that the mausoleum belongs to the famous scientist Seyid Yahya Bakuvin, who was born in the Shirvan region of Azerbaijan. Although the mausoleum was built in the same composition as other octagonal mausoleums in Azerbaijan, it is unique due to the solution of individual elements. This mausoleum differs from others by the use of optical methods in its construction. Here the walls of the octagonal building are not vertical. Gradually, the walls become narrower, making the monument more attractive. The mausoleum consists of aboveground and underground parts. The upper part is relatively large and better lit than the lower part. It has 3 small access windows covered with stone mesh on the south, east and west sides facing the light. Window nets are in the form of multi-pointed stars. Religious rites were performed at the top of the monument. In the lower part there is a grave.
The scientist, who has been famous all over the world since the Middle Ages, was well versed in philosophy, history, astronomy, medicine and mathematics. Sayyid Yahya, who also wrote poems under the pseudonym "Sayyid", was a philosopher, theologian and a well-known Sufi. After moving to Baku, Alim was invited to the palace by Shirvanshah I Khalilullah, one of the most educated and well-educated personalities, who highly valued science and art. A. Bakikhanov, a 19th century public figure and historian of Azerbaijan, wrote: “Seyid Yahya Bakuvi was the main religious leader of this land in the VIII century AH. His name is known in many mysterious sciences. The cell, the madrasa and the tomb next to the mosque where he worships are named after him and still exist today. Mohammad Ali Ayni, a Turkish thinker and professor at Istanbul University who lived in the early twentieth century, also dates the scientist's birth to 800 AH. Sayyid Yahya was the second founder of the secret sect of Sufism, and wrote the prayer of this sect - "Virdi al-Sattari". According to some, the most important work that ensured the fame of the scientist is "Virdi al-Sattar". Because hundreds of thousands of people read this prayer every day. Prayer begins with ensuring that our faults are not exposed. If we consider how much mischief and humiliation people will face if their faults are exposed, we will admit that Sayyid was a Sufi with a great sense of compassion and mercy towards people. One of the desires that Sayyid Yahya attaches great importance to in this prayer is the purity of the heart. The scientist has about 30 scientific works known to us so far. The most noteworthy of them are "The Secret of Truth Seekers", "Symbol of Signs", "Healing of Mysteries", "Mystery of Spirits", "Lover's Apartments" and others. Seyid Yahya's scientific works, written mainly in Arabic, now adorn libraries and museums around the world. The author's personal seal was found in the original manuscript "Ashig's apartments". The words "Hazrat-i Seyid Yahya" were read from the seal.
Cultural heritage, which is distinguished with its uniqueness, antiquity and originality, has a human value. Such a cultural heritage means a great culture and rich history that every nation is proud of. The mausoleum of Seyid Yahya Bakuvi, which is included in the palace complex of Shirvanshahs, is one of such heritages. The year of 2013 has been declared the Year of Seyid Yahya Bakuvi by the UNESCO Headquarters.
We walk to Muhammad Mosque, the oldest in the Islamic period monument in Icherisheher. On the north facade of this mosque just further from the front door is an inscription written in Arabic: This mosque was built by al ustad-al-rais Muhammad ibn Abubakhr. h.471 (1078-79). This date refers to the reign of Shirvanshah I Fariburz. At that time, the city judge was called rais. Rais was elected from among the wealthy segments of the city. They often stood in opposition to Shirvanshah and led the urban artists movement. Rais took an active part in major trade and financial transactions of cities. The main source of their earnings was from trade. At the same time, they received income from agriculture. The mosque was built by the ruler of Baku, Muhammad ibn Abubakr. From his title "al-ustad" it can be understood that Muhammad headed the guild of merchants. The inscription does not name Shirvanshah. This once again confirms the credibility of the sources that the Rais had great authority in society and played an important administrative role in the management of the city. Despite the fact that the mosque was called the "Muhammad Mosque," since the 18th century it has been known as Siniggala. This is due to the attack of the troops of Peter I to Baku in 1723. So, without capturing Baku, a convenient port in the Caspian Sea, Russia would not be able to advance to Iran, and from there to India. In 1723, 15 Russian warships under the command of General Matyushkin moored off the coast of Baku. They sent an ultimatum to the city ruler, demanding that the city be surrendered. The Russians, who were refused, began shelling the city. Defenders of the city witnessed one of the shells hit the tower of Muhammad's mosque. Despite the fact that the tower retains its greatness, its upper part`s destroyed. As a result of the shelling, holes formed in the wall of the mosque. At that moment, a strong wind blew Russian sailboats from shore into the sea. The Muslim population of Baku considers this a punishment given by god to enemies and oppressors. It was a very timely break. The Baku residents took advantage of this respite and restored the fortress wall. A few days later, the wind subsides, and Russian warships return to shore. They were amazed to see that the destroyed walls of the fortress had been completely rebuilt. However, the coverage was very fresh, and this time the castle could not stand the attack of the Russians. The Baku fortress was captured by the Russians. Since then, its minaret has been popularly called Siniggala. The tall tower, erected next to the mosque, is completed by a stone lattice balcony fixed on a stalactite arch. The stone network of the balcony is richly decorated with polygonal and hexagonal stars widespread in Azerbaijani ornamental art. Under the stalactite belt, a Qur'an verse is written in kufic writing. A spiral stone staircase installed inside the minaret begins with the floor of the prayer hall. On the roof of the mosque at a certain height of the minaret is a door. The height of the tower is 22 m. This tower is distinguished by the massiveness and complexity of stalactites. During restoration work carried out in the 1980s, the same room with an arched ceiling was discovered under the prayer hall of the mosque. Under the lower floor of this room were elements of pre-Islamic religious rites. The material and cultural samples obtained here prove that the Muhammad mosque was built on the pre-Islamic fire temple.
Until the beginning of the twentieth century, the appearance of this Juma Mosque was completely different. It was covered with a marquee dome. According to the description of 1837, in the center of the prayer hall there were four arches, which were older and once belonged to the temple of fire worshippers on the site of this mosque. The Juma Mosque has been in operation since the 12th century. This is confirmed by the inscription on the body of his minaret, which bears the name of Abu Yusuf, one of the commanders of Shirvanshah Manuchohr II. The heroism of the commander-in-chief is presented in the poems of Hagani as follows: You, with your Indian sword, which shone like Chinese silk, and shed Kipchak blood, cut off so many Kipchak heads that no one would be surprised if the Kipchak head grew out of the ground instead of grass.
In the 15th century, on the orders of Shiravanshah Khalilulah I, a majestic minaret was erected to the mosque. Its height is 18 m. Under the stalactite arch supporting the honorary balcony of the minaret intended for muezzin, there is an inscription in the handwriting "nachs" encircling the minaret from above: "The house of God is revived by one who believes in God, performs ablutions and worships every day and is not afraid of anyone but God. The great sultan Khalilullah I is one of such persons, h.841 (m.1437). However, the old building of the Juma Mosque gradually fell into disrepair. In the late 19th and early 20th century, the famous Baku merchant Haji Sheikhali Dadashev decided to rebuild this mosque. On the site of the old mosque building, a magnificent building with a richly patterned portal (chapter) is being erected. The inscription was engraved on the portal: "In the name of Allah, this mosque was founded by Sheikh Ali Bakuvi, and was built by master Farzund ibn Najaf Badikubali." The mosque is an asymmetric hexagonal building. His minaret is considered one of Shirvan's finest minarets. The inscriptions on the old mosque building (XI-XII centuries) were later engraved on the body of the minaret. One of these stone inscriptions is a decree of the Sultan, and the other is a state message informing of tax cuts for the Shiite population of Baku.
Mosque school. 17th century
The first mosque school was opened in 859 in Morocco. Since the 10th century, Azerbaijani scholars have turned to the Nizamiya madrasah in Baghdad, which is considered one of the largest cities in the East for education. From the XI century begins the period of the historical prosperity of Azerbaijan. The economic and political situation in the country improved, science and culture flourished. Madrasas began to operate in cities such as Shemakhi, Baku, Ganja, Nakhchivan, Tabriz, Ardabil, etc. Geniuses such as Abul Ula Ganjavi, Falaki Shirwani, Hagani Shirwani, Mahsati Ganjavi, Nizami Ganjavi also studied in such madrasas.
Mosque schools taught Arabic, Persian and grammar, logic, fiqh (Islamic law), mathematics, calligraphy, history and literature. Larger madrasas taught Greek philosophy, astrology, natural history, geometry, medicine, chemistry and other sciences. The teachers were called "mudarris," and the students were called "danyshmand." Mudarris held great respect among the public as he was wise, religious, moral, ponderous, married and noble.
One of such religious and educational places of the Middle Ages on the territory of the city is a monument to a mosque school on A. Zeinalli.Three rooms of the building are shaped as small cells that are not connected to each other. The large room has a wide stone aisle, which was probably used as the front door. Despite the fact that there is a flat roofing from abroad, the exit of all the rooms inside is ideal. There are no windows, the light inside fell from the doors. A ventilation system leading to the street was installed on the roof of the corner room.
At the entrance to the mosque there is an inscription. In the inscription: "The great and sublime God, he is merciful and forgives you all your sins - he said:" It is true that temples belong to God, so do not equate anyone with God. The prophet said: "Whoever builds a mosque the size of a bird cage, Allah will build a house for him and his children in Paradise, and peace for him and his children. Life is very short and spend it on worship... " 'is written.
Another inscription inside the mosque reports that the building was erected in 1646-47 according to the Gregorian calendar, in 1056 hijri. In the inscription above the front door, the poem of the medieval poet Sadi Shirazi in Persian was engraved into a cage:
On the wall on the left side of the front door, in the inscription in Persian in the handwriting of Naskh, the name of the master who built the building is engraved: "The goal was to make a name for myself," he said. My name is Gadir ibn Yadigar. "
The mosque is protected by the government as a significant monument.
Imamgulu mosque school (quarter mosque)
The best students who graduated from school continued their studies in higher religious education centers - madrasas. Madrasas taught Greek philosophy, astrology, natural history, geometry, medicine, chemistry and other sciences. The teachers were called "mudarris," and the students were called "danyshmand." Mudarris held great respect among the public as he was wise, religious, moral, ponderous, married and noble.
Four lines are posted at the entrance to the mosque school. In the inscription: "The great and sublime God, he is merciful and forgives you all your sins - he said:" It is true that temples belong to God, so do not equate anyone with God. The prophet said: "Whoever builds a mosque the size of a bird cage, Allah will build a house for him and his children in Paradise, and peace for him and his children. Life is very short and spend it on worship... " 'is written.
In the lower part of the dome of the first room there is an inscription written on gypsum and then attached to the wall. The book tells about the construction of this building during the time of Shah Abbas II al-Husseini al-Safavi Bahadur Khan on the orders of his personal slave - his servant Imamgulu, and about the donation by Sheikh Tahir of rent from an oil depot to a school-mosque. The article notes that income is divided into three parts, minus the cost of lighting and laying a mosque school, to pay salaries to muezzin and penitents, as well as the cost of building a water supply. "If there is damage to the mosque, then it has to be repaired by renting the warehouse. One copy of the founding letter should be attached in the madrasah mosque, and the other on the door of Sheikh Tahir's warehouse. May the wrath of Allah and Hazrat Mustafa, who do not properly observe these conditions, come in 1056 h.y. The date of 1055 h.y. coincides with 1646 in the Gregorian calendar. In 2013, the mosque was restored. Cracks in the dome under the influence of time were eliminated, the roof was repaired, and repair work was carried out inside.
Imam Gulu Mosque School is protected by the state as a historical monument of national importance.
Sheikh Ibrahim Mosque (neighborhood mosque).
The mosque was built by Khaja Amir Shah Yagub oglu in 818 AH (hicri teqvimi) during the reign of Shirvanshah I Ibrahim, who ruled from 1382 to 1417, and in 1415/16 according to the Gregorian calendar. The monument is 7 meters long, 5 meters wide and covers an area of 35 square meters. During the Soviet era, the mosque was used as a warehouse. There is an epigraphic inscription in Arabic on the arched entrance door of the mosque. The book contains the time of ordering the monument and the name of the customer. The epigraphist Mashadikhanim Nemat could read this monument as: "In the time of Sultan Ibrahim son of Sultan, the honorable chairman Khaja Amir Shah ibn the late Khaja Haji Yagub ordered the construction of this mosque in the eight hundred and eighteenth year." The facade of the Sheikh Ibrahim Mosque is divided into three sections with flat pilasters - four-sided columns attached to one side of the wall. The epigraphic inscription of his second inscription on the window reads as: The late Agha Gafar son of Haji Murad from Baku ordered the restoration of this mosque in the month of Rajab 1286 AH. According to the Gregorian calendar, this was 1867. The mosque has a rectangular plan. On the south wall of the only prayer hall covered with a sloping roof, there is a small altar with a stalactite facing Mecca for worshipers.
Seyid Murtuza Yahya Mosque. XVII century (near the Head Office)
The mosque was built in the early 17th century on the caravan trade route in the part of the Great Silk Road passing through the Old City. This mosque was always open for worship. At that time, it was one of the mosques worshiped by Muslim merchants from Eastern countries. The plan is square in shape, the central part is completed with a dome. There is an entrance gate similar to the portal of the Shah Mosque in the Palace of Shirvanshahs. Numerous windows on four sides are covered with stone mesh. The altar on the south wall is decorated with stalactite. Seyid Murtuza Yahya, a cleric who lived in Baku in the 17th century and worked as an akhund in the mosque, built the mosque at his own expense. According to the will of Sayyid Murtuza Yahya, after his death in 1631-32, he was buried at the entrance of the mosque, on the right side. At present, the tomb of the seyid is located near the entrance of the mosque. One of the stones found here has an epigraphic inscription engraved "The work of Haji ibn Abdullah".
Mosques played an important role in the city as a social, political and cultural center. In addition to being places of worship, mosques also served as public places where people could gather and communicate and learn about daily events. During Novruz and Ramadan holidays, also in the months of Muharram, along with mosques, various ceremonies were held in the neighborhood mosques. The mosque was the only place where any issue between the two classes could be resolved, without distinguishing between rich and poor. In the early 19th century, the Seyid Murtuza Yahya Mosque was used as a warehouse for customs, and later as a barracks for customs officers.
Restoration work was carried out at Seyid Murtuza Yahya Mosque. The country is protected by the state as an important historical and architectural monument.
Beyler Mosque. XIX century (Minaret neighborhood mosque)
The most recently built Beyler Mosque in the ancient city was built in 1895. Haji Baba and Haji Javad, sons of Mohammad Hashim Al-Bakuyi, as well as famous Baku millionaire Aga Murtuza Mukhtarov, Ibrahim Shirvani (calligrapher), Mir Ali al-Naghi, Mir Taghi, master architect Seyid Hussein also took part in the construction of the mosque. It was built on the site of an older mosque and completed with a perfect minaret. The mosque is a monument of local significance. On the sails in the passage of the dome from the rectangular part of the central hall of the building, large pottery jars are placed inside the masonry to create a strong sound effect and a beautiful resonance. The thin necks of the cubes resonated very strongly as they turned towards the hall. The religious sermon read here echoed in the surrounding neighborhoods. Prayer carpets, Quran books and rosaries were placed on the niches in the mosque. As in all mosques, the Beylar Mosque held religious holidays, Ashura days, various religious gatherings, mass prayers, almsgiving, and Quranic verses and sermons. Restoration and conservation works at the Beyler Mosque were carried out by Erich Pummer, a well-known Austrian restoration expert, invited by the Icheri Sheher State Historical-Architectural Reserve. He took part in the restoration of the mosque in the "Icheri Sheher Traditional Art Center", decorated the doors and windows with architectural elements. As a result, it was museumed in 2016 in accordance with its purpose.
Although the mosque building belongs to the neighborhood mosques, it has a single minaret. It is usually called the Beyler Mosque because it gathers and worships famous Baku beys. The single-row book at the entrance to the mosque reads in a line about the customer of the building:
“In the name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. This mosque was built by Mullah Zulfugar al-Hajj, as well as the sons of the late Haji Muhammad Hashim, Haji Baba and Haji Javad, to worship ... Which is better: those who laid the foundation of their building on the fear and pleasure of Allah, or those who did so on the edge of a crumbling cliff that tumbled down with them into the Fire of Hell? And Allah does not guide the wrongdoing people.” (Qur'an, Surat at-Tawba, 109)
The calligrapher's name was Yahya.
In another book on the introduction, the name of the other calligrapher is "It was written
by Ibrahim Shirvani".
In addition, the names of the master architects who built the mosque - Mir Ali an Naghi ibn Seyid Hussein and Mir Taghi ibn Seyid Hussein were engraved.
The two-line inscription on the door to the minaret of the mosque reads, “A new mosque ... The house of God has been built. Its founders are Aga Murtuza Mukhtarzade, Haji Baba and Haji Javad. Murtuza Mukhtarzadeh was a well-known Baku millionaire, owner of oil rigs and a philanthropist. The construction of the tomb of Akhund Abu Turab in Shuvalan (1908) and the mosque in Amirjan (1909) are also connected with his name.
In front of us is the Mehrab, which attracts attention with its magnificent layout, which shows the direction of Mecca - the direction of the qibla, where all Muslims prostrate. The altar is decorated with floral patterns and stalactites for special selection by architects and calligraphers. The verse of the Qur'an is engraved on the top of it: “The mosques of Allah can be repaired only by those who believe in Allah and the Last Day, and perform the prayer and pay the obligatory charity, and fear none but Allah. Only the deeds of such people are accepted by God. They are the ones who can find the right path. ” (Qur'an. Surat at-Tawba. Verse 18) H. 1312 (1894/95)
You came to mosque for praying
Tell your secrets and your wish
Face the altar.
Open your eyes look at the truth
Your face looks at Mecca, but your heart looks elsewhere
What revenge do you want from the judge?
Cursed be he who separates his heart from us.
Among the dams is H. 1312. (1894/95) was engraved.