The territory of Basgal settlement of Ismayilli district has a rich historical and cultural heritage. State Tourism Agency of the Republic of Azerbaijan "Basgal" State Historical-Cultural Reserve covers the ancient part of Basgal settlement. The area of the reserve, established in 1989, is 76 hectares.
In the territory of the reserve, there are historical streets such as the medieval Galabaşı fortress, Goshabulag, Demirchibazar, Daramahalle, Kharabiyan, Kalakuche, Qalibgah, Chaygiraghi, and Bazar square. The fortifications of Basgal from the 9th-19th centuries, Sheikh Mohammad Mosque, Haji Badal Mosque, water and sewage networks, historical baths, artisan quarries, estates, historical and cultural monuments are among the valuable examples of our cultural heritage.
Basgal is also famous for its more than 300-year-old sycamore tree. The Sheikh Mohammad mosque, which dates back to 1531, forms a complex with Pir chinar, Pir bulag and the Kharabiyan cemetery built in the Middle Ages. According to the newly discovered inscription, that complex was a Sufi monastery.
"Basgal" State Historical-Cultural Reserve pays special attention to restoration-conservation and reconstruction works on historical and cultural monuments existing in this area, revival of traditional folk crafts, creation of recreation-tourism infrastructure facilities and service areas.
Basgal's Galalar ancient and early medieval settlement has not been studied from an archaeological point of view. However, material and cultural samples discovered by chance are displayed in the "Basgal" State Historical and Cultural Reserve.
HISTORY OF BASQAL
According to historians, the territory of Baskal belonged to the ancient Albanian state. The name of the settlement, which is almost 3 thousand years old, means "build a fortress", "build a fortress", "top a fortress". This great name brings to mind the ancient Turkic-speaking Basil tribe. Basils were spread over a wide area in South Azerbaijan even 2500 years ago. The ancient Greek historian Herodotus called them "buses" in his book "History". The spoken dialects of Tabriz and Baskals are very similar to each other.
Basgal settlement, which is one of the ancient settlements of Azerbaijan with a rich history and unique nature, is one of the unique settlements that have brought the elements of medieval urban culture to our modern times with its architectural features.
The kuraband (sewerage) network, bazaar, bath and other cultural, economic and religious buildings in the center of Basgal reflect the features of medieval cities and have been in operation since the 13th century to this day.
Archeological researches have proved the existence of human settlements dating back to the 1st-2nd centuries AD in the area called Galalar in the south-east of Baskal. The castles of the XI-XII centuries on Niyal mountain, which rises in the northern part of the settlement, were an important defense point of the Shirvanshahs.
On the order of the State Tourism Agency, on October 7-31, 2019, 121 examples of material culture were discovered as a result of archaeological research conducted in the Basgal settlement of Ismayilli district.
Basgal bath, an architectural monument of the 17th century, was built in the classical Eastern architectural style.
The Basgal bath, located in the territory of the "Basgal" State Historical and Cultural Reserve, has been taken under state protection as a locally important architectural monument (inv. 4466).
This monument, which was restored in 2021 on the basis of historical materials and archival documents by the order of the State Tourism Agency, demonstrates the working principle of the baths that existed in the Middle Ages in the territory of Azerbaijan.